Article | . 2018 Vol. 36, Issue. 3
Irrigation Regimes and Bio-stimulant Application Effects on Yield and Morpho-Physiological Responses of Strawberry

Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Agricultural Structures and Irrigation Department1
Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Horticultural Science Department2

2018.. 313:325


In the Mediterranean region of Turkey, strawberry production is a vital part of the agricultural sector, providing high rates of employment and farm income. Optimizing water application and effective cultivation practices are of considerable importance in improving strawberry yield. In this study the response of strawberry a cultivar (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. Rubygem) to irrigation regimes and bio-stimulant (seaweed extract) use were investigated, by evaluating the yield and morpho-physiological parameters under high tunnel conditions in the Mediterranean environment. The amounts of irrigation water applied were 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the water surface evaporation, measured by a standard Class A pan, and the corresponding regimes were denoted as Ir50, Ir75, Ir100, and Ir125, respectively. There was a significant decrease in total berry yield and number of berries in the Ir50 irrigation regime. The maximum total berry yield was attained at Ir75 in both applications (585.7 g/plant and 521.9 g/plant under bio-stimulant and control applications, respectively). However, the results of Ir75, Ir100 and Ir125 did not reveal any significant yield benefit. The bio-stimulant application provided a significant, 17% increase, in berry yield. The stomatal conductance and leaf water potential were reduced as irrigation application rates decreased. Conversely, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential were statistically higher, 41 µmol·m-2·s-1 and 0.5 bar, respectively, after the use of the bio-stimulant, as it alleviated the negative effects of water stress. Bio-stimulant application also significantly increased fruit nitrogen content by approximately 14%. In conclusion, considering the irrigation regimes of strawberries grown under high tunnels in the Mediterranean environment, water use is recommended at around 274 mm (Ir75), along with bio-stimulant application for optimal yield.

1. Alam MZ, Braun G, Norrie J, Hodges DM (2013) Effect of Ascophyllum extract application on plant growth, fruit yield and soil microbial communities of strawberry. Can J Plant Sci 93:23–36. doi:10.4141/cjps2011-260  

2. Albregts, EE, Howard CM (1978) Elemental compasition of fresh strawberry fruit. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 103:293-296  

3. Battacharyya D, Badgohari MZ, Rathor P, Prithiviraj B (2015) Seaweed extracts as biostimulants in horticulture. Sci Hortic 196:39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.01  

4. Black BL, Hokanson SC, Lewers KS (2005) Fruit nitrogen content of sixteen strawberry genotypes grown in an advanced matted row production system. HortScience 40:1190–1193  

5. Calvo P, Nelson L, Kloepper JW (2014) Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants. Plant Soil 383:3-41. doi:10.1007/s11104-014-2131-8  

6. Cantliffe DJ, Castellanos JZ, Paranjpe AV (2007) Yield and quality of greenhouse-grown strawberries as affected by nitrogen level in coco coir and pine mark media. Proc Fla St Hortic Soc 120:157-161  

7. Cocco C, Andriolo JL, Cardoso FL, Erpen L, Schmitt OJ (2011) Crown size and transplant type on the strawberry yield. Sci Agric 68: 489-493. doi:10.1590/S0103-90162011000400015  

8. Craigie JS (2011) Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. J Appl Phycol 23:371–393. doi:10.1007/s10811-010-9560-4  

9. Dingil M, Öztekin E, Akça E, Şenol S (2010) Updating soil characteristics of the Cukurova Region (Southern Turkey) using geographical  

10. information systems and Ilsen Software. Indian J Agic Res 4:316-320  

11. EBIC (2013) Economic overview of the biostimulants sector in Europe. European Biostimulants Industry Council. Available via Accessed 17 April 2013  

12. FAOSTAT agricultural data (2016) Accessed April 2017  

13. Farhan AH, Pritts MP (1997) Water requirements and water stress in strawberry. Adv Strawberry Res 16:5-12  

14. Flexas J, Medrano H (2002) Energy dissipation in C3 plants under drought.Funct. Plant Biol 29:1209–1215. doi:10.1071/FP02015  

15. Gerhmann H (1985) Growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberries as affected by water supply. Acta Hortic 171:463-469. doi:10.17660/ Acta Hortic.1985.171.44  

16. Ghaderi N, Normohammadi S, Javadi T (2015) Morpho-physiological responses of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) to exogenous salicylic acid application under drought stress. J Agric Sci Tech 17:167-178  

17. Giovanardi R, Testolin R (1984) Evapotranspiration and yield response of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Dutch.) as affected by soil water conditions. L'Irrigazione 31:15-23  

18. Grant OM, Davies MJ, Johnson AW, Simpson DW (2012) Physiological and growth responses to water deficits in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) and in one of its progenitors, Fragaria chiloensis. Environ Exp Bot 83:23-32. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012. 04.004.  

19. Grant OM, Johnson AW, Davies MJ, James CM, Simpson DW (2010) Physiological and morphological diversity of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in response to water deficit. Environ Exp Bot 68:264–272. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.01.008  

20. Grijalba CM, Trujillo MMP, Ruiz D, Ferrucho AM (2015) Strawberry yields with high tunnel and open field cultivations and the relationship with vegetative and reproductive plant characteristics. Agron Colomb 33:147-154. doi:10.15446/agron.colomb.v33n2.52000  

21. Haifa (2014) Nutritional recomendations for strawberry. Available via Accessed 20 September 2016  

22. Hancock JF (1999) Strawberries. Crop Production Science in Horticulture. Vol. 11. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, p 237  

23. Hare PD, Cress WA, Van Staden JV (1998) Dissecting the roles of osmolyte accumulation during stress. Plant Cell Environ 21:535–553. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.1998.00309.x  

24. Holliger SE, Angel JR (2011) Weather and crops. Available via Accessed 25 November 2016  

25. Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 24:519-570. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.24.060173.002511  

26. Iatrou M, Papadopoulos A (2016) Influence of nitrogen nutrition on yield and growth of an everbearing strawberry cultivar (cv. Evie II), J Plant Nut 39:1499-1505. doi:10.1080/01904167.2015.1109119  

27. Ivanov A (1977) Strawberry water requirements in the Danubian irrigation system region. Gradinarska-i-Lozarska-Nauka 14:37-42  

28. Jackson ML (1973) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, p 498  

29. Kanber R (2006) Irrigation. The publication of Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, 174(A-52), p 530. (In Turkish)  

30. Kanber R, Eylen M, Tok A (1986) The yield of strawberry under drip and furrow irrigation in Cukurova region of Turkey. The report of Agriculture, Forestry and Village Affairs Ministry. 135(77), 39, (In Turkish).  

31. Khan W, Hiltz D, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B (2011) Bioassay to detect Ascophyllum nodosum extract-induced cytokinin-like activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Appl Phycol 23:409–414. doi:10.1007/s10811-010-9583-x윻  

32. Khan W, Rayirath UP, Subramanian S, Jithesh MN, Rayorath P, Hodges DM, Critchley AT, Craigie JS, Norrie J, et al (2009) Seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth and development. J Plant Growth Regul 28:386–399. doi:10.1007/s00344-009-9103-x  

33. Kirschbaum DS, Correa M, Borquez AM, Larson KD, DeJong TM (2004) Water requirements and water use efficiency of fresh and waiting bed strawberry plants. Acta Hortic 664:347-352. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.664.43  

34. Kirschbaum DS, Larson KD, Weinbaum SE, DeJong TT (2010) Late season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry nurseries improve transplant production pattern in warm regions. Afr J Biotechnol 9:1001-1007.doi:10.5897/AJB09.1059  

35. Klamkowski K, Treder W (2008) Response to drought stress of three strawberry cultivars grown under greenhouse conditions. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res 16:179–188  

36. Koester RP, Skoneczka JA, Cary TR, Diers BW, Ainsworth EA (2014) Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies. J Exp Bot 65:3311–3321. doi:10.1093/jxb/eru187  

37. Kumar S, Dey P (2011) Effect of different mulches and irrigation methods on root growth, nutrient uptake, water use efficiency and yield of strawberry. Sci Hortic 127:318-324. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2010.10.023  

38. Lemaitre R (1976) Strawberry water requirements and irrigation. Pepinieristes Horticulteurs Maraichers 166:57-59  

39. Little H, Neily W (2010) Commercial extracts of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum improve plant water use and drought stress resistance in the greenhouse and field. Oral presentation. West Plant Growth Regul Soc Annu Meeting Davis, California, USA  

40. Liu CW, Sung Y, Chen BC, Lai HY (2014) Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrogen content of lettuce. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:4427–4440. doi:10.3390/ijerph110404427  

41. Liu F, Savic S, Jensen CR, Shahnazari A, Jacobsen SE, Stikic R, Andersen MN (2007) Water relations and yield of lysimeter-grown strawberries under limited irrigation. Sci Hortic 111:128–132. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.006  

42. Lozano D, Ruiz N, Gavilan P (2016) Consumptive water use and irrigation performance of strawberries. Agr Water Manage 169:44- 51.doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2016.02.011  

43. McNiesh CM, Welch NC, Nelson RD (1985) Trickle irrigation requirements for strawberries Fragaria ananassa cultivar Heidi in coastal California USA. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 110:714-718.  

44. Moll RH, Kamprath EJ, Jackson WA (1982) Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Agron J 74:562-564. doi:10.2134/agronj1982.00021962007400030037x.  

45. Moon J, Bailey DA, Fallahi E, Jensen RG, Zhu G (1990) Effect of nitrogen application on growth and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency in two eco types of wild strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis. Physiol Plant 80:612-618. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990. tb05686.x  

46. Natsheh B, Khalaf NA, Mousa S (2015) Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) Plant productivity quality in relation to soil water depth and water requirements. Int J Plant Res 5:1-6. doi:10.5923/j.plant.20150501.01  

47. Pomper KW, Breen PJ (1997) Expansion and osmotic adjustment of strawberry fruit during water stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 122:183–189  

48. Powell M, Cowan J, Miles C, Inglis DA (2013) Effect of a high tunnel, organic cropping system on lettuce diseases in western Washington. Online. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0922-01-RS.  

49. Prazak M (1979) Results of field trials on the effectiveness of strawberry irrigation. Vedecke-Prace-Ovocnarske 7:133-142  

50. Rennquist RP, Breen J, Martin LW (1982) Effect of polyethylene mulch and summer irrigation on subsequent flowering and fruiting of ‘Olympus’ strawberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 107:373–376  

51. Sarfaraz A, Naeem M, Nasir S, Idrees M, Aftab T, Hashmi N, Khan MMA, Moinuddin, Varshney L (2011) An evaluation of the effects of irradiated sodium alginate on the growth, physiological activities and essential oil production of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). J Med Plants Res 5:15–21  

52. Save R, Penuelas J, Marfa O, Serrano L (1993) Changes in leaf osmotic and elastic properties and canopy structure of strawberries under mild water-stress. HortScience 28:925–927  

53. SDP (2014) 10th State Development Plan. Efficient water use in Agriculture. Ministry of Forest and hydraulic works, Turkey. Available via 18 September 2016, (In Turkish)  

54. Serrano L, Carbonell X, Save R, Marfà O, Penuelas J (1992) Effects of irrigation regimes on the yield and water use of strawberry. Irrig Sci 13:45–48. doi:10.1007/BF00190244  

55. Sezen SM, Yazar A, Kapur B, Tekin S (2011) Comparison of drip and sprinkler irrigation strategies on sunflower seed and oil yield and quality under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Agr Water Manage 98:1153-1161. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2011.02.005  

56. Spinelli F, Fiori G, Noferini M, Sprocatti M, Costa G (2010) A novel type of seaweed extract as a natural alternative to the use of iron chelates in strawberry production. Sci Hortic 125:263–269. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2010.03.011  

57. Stirk WA, Van Staden J (2006) Seaweed products as bio-stimulants in agriculture. In AT Critchley, M Ohno, DB Largo (eds.) World seaweed resources: ETI Information Services Lts, Univ. Amsterdam. ISBN: 9075000 80–4. A independent literature cited in this paper. So make a new paragraph it.   

58. Strand LL (2008) Integrated pest management for strawberries, vol. 3351. UCANR Publications, CA, USA  

59. Trout TJ, Gartung J (2004) Irrigation water requirements of strawberries. Acta Hortic 664:665–671. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.664.84  

60. TUIK (2016) Agricultural data. Turkish statistical institute. Available via 15 September 2016  

61. William J, Lamont Jr (2009) Overview of the use of high tunnels worldwide. HortTechnology 19:25-29  

62. Wilson S (2001) Frost Management in Cool Climate Vineyards. Final Report to Grape and Wine Research & Development Corporation  

63. Yuan BZ, Kang Y, Nishiyama S (2001) Drip irrigation scheduling for tomatoes in unheated greenhouse. Irr Sci 20:149–154. doi:10.1007/ s002710100039  

64. Yuan BZ, Sun J, Nishiyama S (2004) Effect of drip irrigation on strawberry growth and yield inside a plastic greenhouse. Biosyst Eng 87:237–245. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2003.10.014  

65. Zhang B, Archbold DD (1993) Water relations of a Fragaria chiloensis and a F. virginiana selection during and after water deficit stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 118:274–279  

66. Zhang X, Ervin EH (2008) Impact of seaweed extract-based cytokinins and zeatin riboside on creeping bentgrass heat tolerance. Crop Sci 48:364–370. doi:10.2135/cropsci2007.05.0262