Article | . 2018 Vol. 36, Issue. 5
Influence of Hot Water Immersion and MAP Pre-treatments on Sterilization and Asparagus Spear Qualities During Cold Storage



Division of Horticulture and Systems Engineering, Kangwon National University1
Agricultural and Life Science Research Institute, Kangwon National University2
Deptartment of Plant Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University3




2018.. 756:765


PDF XML




The purpose of this study was to determine how asparagus spear qualities are affected by hot water immersion (HWT) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) pre-treatments. Asparagus spears were treated either with different durations of HWT or packed with 10,000 cc/m2·day·atm oxygen transmission rate (OTR) film as the MAP treatment, and then stored at 4°C until the final storage day. Respiration and ethylene production rates in asparagus increased after HWT, with 8 and 16 min treatments having the most effect on these parameters. Fresh weight loss was less than 0.3% with all treatments. Gas composition (i.e., C2H4, CO2, and O2) within the packaging was not significant among all treatments during storage. The MAP and HWT treatments made no difference not only in fresh weight but also in gas composition. Microbial growth (i.e., total aerobic bacteria, yeast, mold, and E. coli) was lower with the 2 and 4 min treatments than with the other treatments. Electrolyte leakage was less in the control, 2 min, and 4 min treatments compared to the 8 and 16 min treatments. The hue angle and total chlorophyll values, which are associated with yellowing, remained constant at the 2 and 4 min treatments compared to the other treatments, which did not have maintained values. Asparagine content accumulated in the control, 2 and 4 min treatments, whereas the 8 and 16 min treatments showed a decrease in asparagine content. Stem firmness was similar to pre-storage measurements with the 4 min treatment. Stem length for all of the treatments was slightly increased before storage regardless of HWT duration. Asparagus off-odor and visual qualities were the best with 4 min treatment compared to the other treatments. Consequently, HWT for 2-4 min and MAP Pre-treatments were effective in maintaining the measured qualities among the treatment and control groups. In contrast, HWT for more than 8 min offset any beneficial heat-treatment effects for long-term storage; as indicated by tissue softening at the stem tip, which resulted in secondary damages that included microorganism infection and deterioration of visual quality in the vegetables.



1. AOAC (1997) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. AOAC International  

2. Baxter L, Waters Jr L (1991) Quality changes in asparagus spears stored in a flow-through CA system or in consumer packages. HortScience 26:399-402  

3. Borek S, Kalemba EM, Pukacka S, Pietrowska-Borek M, Stawiński S, Ratajczak L (2017) Nitrate simultaneously enhances lipid and protein accumulation in developing yellow lupin cotyledons cultured in vitro, but not under field conditions. J Plant Physiol 216:26-34. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2017.03.021  

4. Budde CO, Polenta G, Lucangeli CD, Murray RE (2006) Air and immersion heat treatments affect ethylene production and organoleptic quality of ‘Dixiland’peaches. Postharvest Biol Tech 41:32-37. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.02.009  

5. Chiu KY, Sung JM (2013) Quality of low temperature heat-shocked green asparagus spears during short-term storage. Afr J Agric Res 8:3849-3856. doi:10.5897/AJAR2012.6697  

6. Cho MA, Hong YP, Choi JW, Won YB, Bae DH (2009) Effect of packaging film and storage temperature on quality maintenance of broccoli. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 27:128-139  

7. Choi IL, Yoo TJ, Kang HM (2015) UV-C treatments enhance antioxidant activity, retain quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut paprika in MA storage. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 56:324-329. doi:10.1007/s13580-015-0141-y  

8. Fallik E (2004) Prestorage hot water treatments (immersion, rinsing and brushing). Postharvest Biol Tech 32:125-134. doi:10.1016/ j.postharvbio.2003.10.005  

9. Gariépy Y, Raghavan GSV, Castaigne F, Arul J, Willemot C (1991) Precooling and modified atmosphere storage of green asparagus. J Food Process Preserv 15:215-224. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.1991.tb00167.x  

10. Haard NF, Sharma SC, Wolfe R, Frenkel R (1974) Ethylene induced isoperoxidase changes during fiber formation in postharvest asparagus. J Food Sci 39:452-456. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1974.tb02923.x  

11. Hurst PL, Boulton G, Lill RE (1998) Towards a freshness test for asparagus: spear tip asparagine content is strongly related to post-harvest accumulated heat-units. Food Chem 61:381-384. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00031-9  

12. Kader AA (2002) Postharvest technology of horticultural crops (3rd ed.). University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, CA  

13. Kang HM, Park KW (1998) Changes in composition of free acids in relation to ethylene production during the ripening of tomato fruits. J Kor Soc Hortic Sci 39:385-390  

14. Kato M, Hayakawa Y, Hyodo H, Ikoma Y, Yano M (2000) Wound-induced ethylene synthesis and expression and formation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, ACC oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in wounded mesocarp tissue of Cucurbita maxima. Plant Cell Physiol 41:440-447. doi:10.1093/pcp/41.4.440  

15. Kays SJ, Paull ER (2004) Postharvest Biology. Exon Press, Athens, GA  

16. Koukounaras A, Siomos AS, Sfakiotakis E (2009) Impact of heat treatment on ethylene production and yellowing of modified atmosphere packaged rocket leaves. Postharvest Biol Tech 54:172-176. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2009.07.002  

17. Lee JS (2015) Quality characteristics, carbon dioxide, and ethylene production of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) treated with 1-methylcyclopropene and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid during storage. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 33:675-686. doi:10.7235/ hort.2015.14145  

18. Lee KH (1995) Effects of heat treatment on protein quality as lysine damage. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 24:816-828  

19. Lee L, Arul J, Lencki R, Castaigne F (1995) A review on modified atmosphere packaging and preservation of fresh fruits and vegetables: Physiological basis and practical aspects-part I. Pack Technol Sci 8:315-331. doi:10.1002/pts.2770080605  

20. Liu ZY, Jiang WB (2006) Lignin deposition and effect of postharvest treatment on lignification of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Plant Growth Regul 48:187-193. doi:10.1007/s10725-005-6112-z   

21. McDonald RE, McCollum TG, Baldwin EA (1999) Temperature of water heat treatments influences tomato fruit quality following low-temperature storage. Postharvest Biol Tech 16:147-155. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(99)00008-3  

22. Park KW, Kang HM, Kim CH (2000) Comparison of storability on film sources and storage temperature for fresh Japanese mint in MA storage. J Bio-Environ Control 9:40-46  

23. Paull RE, Chen NJ (1999) Heat treatment prevents postharvest geotropic curvature of asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Postharvest Biol Tech 16:37-41. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00101-X  

24. Sapers GM (2001) Efficacy of washing and sanitizing methods for disinfection of fresh fruit and vegetable products. Food Technol Biotechnol 39:305-311  

25. Sheng SJ, Kraft JJ, Schuster SM (1993) A specific quantitative colorimetric assay for L-asparagine. Anal Biochem 211:242-249. doi:10.1006/abio.1993.1264  

26. Siomos AS, Gerasopoulos D, Tsouvaltzis P, Koukounaras A (2010) Effects of heat treatment on atmospheric composition and color of peeled white asparagus in modified atmosphere packaging. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 11:118-122. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2009. 08.008  

27. Wang SS, Haard NF, Dimarco GR (1971) Chlorophyll degradation during controlled-atmosphere storage of asparagus. J Food Sci 36:657-661. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1971.tb15154.x  

28. Wardowski WF, Grierson W, Edwards GJ (1973) Chilling injury of stored limes and grapefruit as affected by differentially permeable packaging films. HortScience 8:173-175  

29. Yoo NH, Jung SK, Lee CA, Choi DG, Yun SJ (2017) Post-harvest LED and UV-B irradiation enhance antioxidant properties of asparagus spears. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 35:188-198. doi:10.12972/kjhst.20170022  

30. Yoon HS, Choi IL, Kang HM (2017) Different oxygen transmission rate packing films during modified atmosphere storage: effects on asparagus spear quality. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 35:314-322. doi:10.12972/kjhst.20170034  

31. Yoon HS, Kang HM (2017) Influence of several pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on toughness and quality of asparagus spears during storage. Hortic Sci Technol 35:717-726. doi:10.12972/kjhst.20170076  

32. Zhang P, Zhang M, Wang S, Wu Z (2012) Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on green asparagus quality during cold storage. Int Agrophys 26:407-411. doi:10.2478/v10247-012-0057-z