Article | . 2019 Vol. 37, Issue. 1
Changes in Fruit Quality, Antioxidant Activity, and Flavonoid Content with Limited Irrigation after Full Bloom of Early-Maturing ‘Harye’ Satsuma Mandarin in a Plastic Greenhouse



College of Applied Life Science SARI, Jeju National University1
Citrus Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA2
R&D Center, M·Horticultural Technique Research Institute3




2019.. 10:19


PDF XML




The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fruit growth and quality, antioxidant activity, and flavonoid content with limited irrigation after full bloom of early-maturing ‘Harye’ Satsuma mandarin (C. Unshui Marc.) in a plastic greenhouse. The results indicated a higher level of total soluble solids (TSS) content and lower fruit growth in immature fruit with limited irrigation from 30 and 60 days after full bloom, compared with the limited irrigation from 90 days after full bloom. However the fruit showed higher acidity, antioxidant activity, and flavonoid contents in the peel at fruit maturation. The results suggested that limited irrigation from before 60 days after full bloom is needed to increase TSS and antioxidant activity in the mature season in greenhouse cultivation in the early- maturing ‘Harye’ Satsuma mandarin.



1. Berkarda B, Koyuncu H, Soybir G, Baykut F (1998) Inhibitory effect of hesperidin on tumour initiation and promotion in mouse skin. Res Exp Med 198:93-99. doi:10.1007/s004330050093  

2. Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181:1199-1200. doi:10.1038/1811199a0  

3. Chae CW, Song KJ, Moon DK (2007) Effect of the season of drought stress on the free sugar concentration and sugar-related enzyme activity in fruit juice of early-maturing Satsuma mandarin. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 25:241-247  

4. Chen YT, Zheng RL, Jia ZY, Ju Y (1990) Iron chelation by the powerful antioxidant flavonoid quercetin. Free Radic Biol Med 9:19-21  

5. Choi SY, Ko SY, Ko JH, Hwang JG, Park SH, Kang SH, Han SH, Yun SH, Kim SJ (2007) Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various citrus fruits. Biol Pharm Bull 30:772-778. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.772  

6. Emim JA, Oliveira AB, Lapa A (1994) Effects of gut microflora on pharmacokinetics of hesperidin. J Pharm Pharmacol 46:118 –122. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1994.tb03753.x  

7. Han, SH, Kang H, Chae CW (2014) Effect of Tyvek mulching and trickle irrigation on fruit quality in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mark.) Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 32:18-25  

8. Hirose K (1988) Management of soil moisture. In Plastic greenhouse cultivation technique in Satsuma mandarin. Seibundo Shinkosha, Tokyo, pp 220-221  

9. Huang XM, Huang HM, Gao FF (2000) The growth potential generated in citrus fruit under water stress and its relevant mechanisms. Sci Hortic 83:227-240. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(99)00083-7  

10. Hyun HN, Lim HC, Han HR, Moon DK (1993) Effects of polyethylene film mulching and root pruning on soil water and fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). J Kor Soc Hortic Sci 34:368-377  

11. Iglesias D, Cercós M, Colmenero-Flores J, Naranjo M, Ríos G, Carrera E, Ruiz-Rivero O, Lliso I, Morillon R, et al (2007) Physiology of citrus fruiting. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:333-362. doi:10.1590/S1677-04202007000400006  

12. Ishiwa J, Sato T, Mimaki Y, Fukuyama M, Nakamura S, Kosaka H (2000) A citrus flavonoid, nobiletin, suppresses production and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9/gelatinase B in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. J Rheumatol 27:20-25  

13. Jeju Citrus Cooperative (2000) A description of the main varieties of citrus. Jeju Citrus Cooperative, Korea. p 56   

14. Jeju Special Self-governing Province Citrus Marketing & Shipping Association (2015) Comparison of total soluble solid and acidity in fruit juice from 2010 to 2015. In Analysis of citrus collection, marketing and shipping. Jeju Shinsia, Korea. p 25  

15. Kadoya K, Kameda K, Chikaizumi S, Matsumoto K (1973) Studies on the hydro-physiological rhythms of citrus trees. Cyclic fluctuations of leaf thickness and stem diameter of Natsudaidai seedlings. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 44:260-264. doi:10.2503/jjshs.44.260  

16. Kanadaswami C, Perkins E, Soloniuk DS, Drzewiecki G, Middleton E (1991) Flavonoids: signal molecules in plant development. Cancer Lett 56:147-152  

17. Kaufman MR (1970) Water potential components in growing citrus fruits. Plant  Physiol 46:145-149. doi:10.1104/pp.46.1.145  

18. Kawaii S, Tomono Y, Katase E, Ogawa K, Yano M (1999) Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in Citrus fruits. J Agric Food Chem 47:128-135. doi:10.1021/jf9805101  

19. Kim, SS, Baik JS, Oh TH, Yoon WJ (2008) Biological activities of Korean Citrus obovoides and Citrus natsudaidai essential oils against acne-bacteria. Biosci Biothechnol Biochem 72:2507-2513. doi:10.1271/bbb.70388  

20. Kobayashi S, Tanabe S (2006) Analysis of food allergen structures and development of foods for allergic patients. Int J Mol Med 17:511-515  

21. Lee HJ, Moon YE, Kang SB, Han SG, Choi YH (2016) Effects of various mulching periods of porous film on fruit drop rate and fruit quality in ‘Harye’ mandarin. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 34:158(Suppl. II)  

22. Maotani T, Machida Y (1980) Leaf potential as an indicator irrigation timing for satsuma mandarin trees in summer. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 49:41-48. doi:10.2503/jjshs.49.41  

23. Miyazawa M, Okuno Y, Fukuyama M, Nakamura S, Kosaka H (1999) Antimutagenic activity of polymethoxyflavonoids from Citrus aurantium. J Agric Food Chem 47:5239-5244. doi:10.1021/jf990176o  

24. Mizutani F (2006) Fruit trees. In Jpn Soc Hortic Sci, ed, Horticulture in Japan 2006. Nakanishi, Japan  

25. Mukai H, Takagi T, Teshima Y, Suzuki T (1996) Sugar contents in parts of fruit of satsuma mandarin tree under water stress in autumn. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 65:478-485. doi:10.2503/jjshs.65.479  

26. Murakami A, Nakamura A, Nakamura Y, Torikai K, Tanaka T, Koshima T, Koshimizu K, Kuwahara S, Takahashi Y, et al (2000a) Inhibitory effect of Citrus nobiletin on phorbol ester-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress, and tumor promotion in mice. Cancer Res 60:5059-5066  

27. Murakami A., Nakamura Y, Ohto Y, Yano M, Koshiba, T, Koshimizu K, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Ohigashi H (2000b) Suppressive effects of citrus fruit on free radical generation and nobiletin, an anti-inflammatory polymethoxy flavonoid. Biofactors 12:187-192. doi:10.1002/biof.5520120130  

28. Nagata Y, Sakamoto K, Shiratsuchi H, Ishii T, Yano M, Ohta H (2006) Flavonoid composition of fruit tissues of citrus species. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:178-192. doi:10.1271/bbb.70.178  

29. Navarro JM, Botía P, Pèrez-Pèrez JG (2015) Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradise Mac.). Food Chem 175:329-336. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.152  

30. Sadark SM, Orabi SA, Bakry BA (2015) Antioxidant properties, secondary metabolites and yield as affected by application and banana peel extract on roselle plants. Am-Eurasian J Sustain Agric 9:93-104  

31. Yakushiji H, Morinaga K, Nonami H (1998) Sugar accumulation and partitioning in Satsuma mandarin trees tissues and fruit in response to drought stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:719-726   

32. Yakushiji H, Nonami H, Fukuyama T, Ono S, Takagi N, Hashimoto Y (1996) Sugar accumulation enhanced by osmoregulation in Satsuma mandarin fruit. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 121:466-472  

33. Yun SH, Kim SJ, Kim HY, Park JH, An HJ, Kang SK, Moon YI, Kim KS, Lee DH, et al (2008) A new early maturing Satsuma mandarin cultivar, ‘Haryejosaeng’. Korean J Breed Sci 40:184-187  

34. Zhang G, Xie S (2014) Water stress on the citric acid metabolism related gene expression in the ‘Ponkan’ fruits. Agric Sci 5:1513-1521. doi:10.4236/as.2014.514162